× Welcome to frontrun me, the premier site for visualizing Ethereum gas auctions. These gas auctions are often bids by frontrunners, arbitrageurs, and other programmatic network actors that seek to exploit inefficiencies in on-chain systems, ultimately profiting miners. On this site, we monitor these behaviors on the network in real-time as these bots compete for block priority in rapid-fire all-pay auctions*, showing users and mechanism designers the potential rent-seeking economy created by orderbook inefficiencies on-chain. Timing data is sourced from a global network of 8 nodes peered deeply with Ethereum. Read our full paper!
*Modern auctions are a special kind of all-pay auction, in which the winner of the auction pays some constant percentage of their bid; they do not pay full gas, as they do not pay for execution, but they must pay for attempted execution.

WARNING: THIS IS AN ALPHA VERSION OF THE SITE WITH PRELIMINARY DATA AND KNOWN BUGS. Use at your own risk and follow @ProjectChicago_ for announcements on release and more data being added.

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Individual Real-Time Auction Data


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Note: only auctions with a single detected "winner" (mined with 2+ log events) are displayed in this view. Other auctions may contain multiple sub-auctions, as the split is heuristic.

Gas Auction #1404 - 2018-11-13 20:09:22 to 20:09:33; Start Time 1542139762.4240463

Seconds Elapsed Gas Price (gwei) Bidder (Sender Address/Nonce) Gas Limit Transaction Hash Gas Paid Block/Index Mined
0.000 126.000000000 () 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 214212 0x28fdd46c913d66c9eba600b5ea2d80c9940ee2945b8ebd517bf9b3ae596c1850
0.287 93.123132027 (-30.007665250922905) 0xccD7BDff63017081B5cF72993d5D84cf2a266330/708 199212 0x674ac8e75059dad9fd73ebcd9cee7c64d680909120a271cd67830a8f64f6d3c0
0.437 189.558269191 (68.22885180877574) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225909 0xbb2b5d24baa689ead7da4783bf9f360436dfaef6af5cb2b8e469d2690fbcd2f8
0.463 215.892432142 (12.990069009337605) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 240479 0x6e60cea1f12e98de81cf6e9461029d08a55685bfd98d6ede02b1952dc25ef4f9
0.639 322.249057624 (39.5273835987807) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225909 0x321fd98466b5dc50cbf9b2d13d6cd33d8e46b0f5698f83ac4de3ee7160225b6f
0.663 126.000000001 (-87.56250762145704) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0x136a656b39c602e7ffa0b2b789092e407aeee0f28ca1f1624b86d133ec517629
0.728 131.040000000 (3.9215686266576344) 0x0000F7F39325076881E5fC566E99595542532aE2/15906 225638 0x61d45678e8ce1f51ae088b28691108f5761239085951d77c0fe6061484f5907b
0.901 323.975668791 (84.80396699464877) 0xccD7BDff63017081B5cF72993d5D84cf2a266330/708 234116 0x21155669948e2d8ae8a2a71f45452f2ae98dcfc51f9a2dbbb4b1d40df41810d7
0.901 222.768000000 (-37.02198107379931) 0x0000F7F39325076881E5fC566E99595542532aE2/15906 225638 0xd782996c23021b4f167cb867f03bb9ee8f2ef28bb1907cce82210042ba50207a
0.948 547.823397960 (84.36517688116551) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225909 0xf5545b3a0f36109719d8dc4fe9e6fdf425f97bf5830fb4a3af5f5c4b1cb347c8
0.952 189.813907932 (-97.06924722172808) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225730 0x8884efa12f44e92b92b66400bd895d8e7ec2e5bafa7e19e0daca19d035394d48
1.025 126.252000001 (-40.220666851847824) 0xccD7BDff63017081B5cF72993d5D84cf2a266330/708 234116 0xc5794c8cd7c021f5014901b36afb12623ec3cec416089959c2630215a4a365c1
1.084 367.017134641 (97.62019057395112) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 240479 0x2a47342b53ce4ebed46cbb1cf3d6c15e8074cb054907a5aa3e9ff87086b32072
1.144 931.299776532 (86.9252548487847) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225909 0x5b0a45b3e8f3037d85d2b1c3d857003fe79686cbe65772253f8f6bc0d588f53b
1.205 190.193535747 (-132.16418371305113) 0xccD7BDff63017081B5cF72993d5D84cf2a266330/708 234116 0x0b443eeeca6bf5bc94c2d4d1939452e551da5e9cc08769fc3d6bca095be4617b
1.323 378.705600000 (66.27257888359135) 0x0000F7F39325076881E5fC566E99595542532aE2/15906 225638 0x1e9e92f0c972b26c7d06903d0b26005cc411b0c78720d01cd65b0aa815246d3b
1.426 323.329010770 (-15.776028241474387) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0x08f7684e928300ba838df5579e4beac229777df382197257f76d22b59829d96e
1.428 1052.157867107 (105.97394538025885) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0x99be651a749d4e7e386ff754e0cc05e49eeef1987702d116dacd7bc517bc61b7
1.441 936.289682808 (-11.654135338289713) 0xccD7BDff63017081B5cF72993d5D84cf2a266330/708 234116 0xe213c3b6fac336e191b457ea5a4b0914fb2a2fe5e4d5e772b4fd2577c490d6d1
1.450 1583.209620104 (51.35305547005308) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225909 0x133b9a62ff7145b0fbe5914ba0e46b927137596afdd81c6920bef23cc80536a5
1.459 932.555729667 (-51.726119091053256) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225730 0x542d04aebcadbaf25bd7ca0973ca86023e3fe4d0ca3c6535281734c45bd09756
1.459 262.230710306 (-112.20834065979994) 0x9D0689dD9586CDF0e29140852E0Ab2c02036C1AE/12 90000 0x0c4077a830f4f7cdce45ddb7a819d76197346be5dde466c7e3dd29a366f28aa6
1.483 322.249057625 (20.537356675820945) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0x20cf2bfe4a7f397006a520e23d98b1125af084d2bdb2cc814eb9d8c2b5909445
1.487 216.324217006 (-39.335349750346865) 0xccD7BDff63017081B5cF72993d5D84cf2a266330/708 234116 0x504e5062f23313fa0ed9e5972111f29d8ddd44eeaa1de5888c1da432cdaf7785
1.530 623.929128889 (97.01952723528584) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 240479 0xb5aa45ce6249d88be6ba283ec9f9d19130aad3bee3fbeff3b47aec4c4a035c08
1.537 1588.515429913 (87.19642688323965) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0x4cd2636fd8c7b8cfc927ece8c58773ed680144d19a9c694b00c61d8117886494
1.646 1789.185191679 (11.882033622708635) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225909 0xdef9a3eb018925a8fc1d0a763890d43e567793b7ca11989cea3b0d54b0c03df7
1.656 243.581068348 (-152.0690453914235) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0xc6f301efa9a665a263289e5b983d4b34a7499c2a25f5c65a1a31b3bc5d28f4bf
1.676 2014.040589216 (156.84288950154263) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0xa67a3381141f483b8c4182ef104b84b9dab23d9e6cb7425955921ad9b880e093
1.679 643.799520000 (-103.10936797625412) 0x0000F7F39325076881E5fC566E99595542532aE2/15906 225638 0x774002f20a938cf1f83925f353c906837a14725190b3bdd552119c2afed9d32f
1.781 189.813907933 (-108.91993743255493) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0x5455952e4927fadb78c95f9318b20bd3ffccf3a93d26422eaf703af6a3bd3080
1.797 216.324217006 (13.054824181788755) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0xdc508d42421b6fad790addefabf6cb5fcfbc371673ceb84c4ded2a42f320612b
1.799 1094.459184000 (133.9862812299956) 0x0000F7F39325076881E5fC566E99595542532aE2/15906 225638 0x08ce915c76ca4f8b19fbd581efec6f5012675a0f4d4cbf4b422bcae296403cf4 6698753 6698753 / 33
1.819 1585.344740433 (36.63593085728187) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225730 0x463ac8d4a6e4e68df1cefd4edd1554f41ae26a3d204b8c3ed796b26f5fc7c81e
1.833 1788.668374082 (12.0523321485801) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0x61961a13fc93e02fe7bfc1bd257df6730d6a4128c39062c2a8250368a8d2799a
1.952 2021.958185116 (12.244170737271045) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225909 0x58d282eb676610562e15980df50ab376aeeb9dfb89e82f31167d755843eb32d5
1.952 141.876000000 (-173.773221446283) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0x9ccadfbf47e98589eb772c8ae5c7f255896e51c7dfab1c7bce9583d39edae843
1.992 1791.598091163 (170.64848178758672) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225730 0x6f6cc265422010453a1a85bd440e39f8df9e22c3a0ac3f6258d3c01c197970ec
1.998 620.154225201 (-97.1446245133571) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0x4d4c2dd001ec0cbf2ab58fe7a3851db35e7945ec1e3f13bc080ceffe7d640de0
2.010 218.525591921 (-95.7763916766764) 0x9D0689dD9586CDF0e29140852E0Ab2c02036C1AE/12 90000 0xc1d82009815dd7639438efceed52e3ffc9263532b5cb76dbf51f3b39e490cb57
2.054 1054.262182841 (131.32379293575087) 0xccD7BDff63017081B5cF72993d5D84cf2a266330/708 27000 0x6d24060130dba6e5d99ca7ddac07e9d6b54c54c6460e71edbc4719f05d5f974c
2.151 2285.014944999 (73.71372396121602) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225909 0x514554dfafc1a6e15cba6276aefd252c24eeb8997447baa399ef58f7dc7f4bc0
2.155 322.683643484 (-150.502923166175) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225730 0xc95e6db70ef08291a977f9cbd3a11b06243c2ba22a739dcb0d035d587c0b7e10
2.162 215.892432143 (-39.65687158185618) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0x0b3094edcca4d2c32c0a9e12d8d4171e5f05649e0c726d5b232208d9e1a28dbe
2.212 548.562193922 (87.03453427743761) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225730 0xa07e879191aaa81866b43713c685bb0a5d3f659bd2d49c70730a433d29e83bdc
2.240 1803.155182488 (106.69589816793304) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 240479 0x69eecd6d93bc0b998a4ae10f74c7d84d1010394c6a61bc63fb14cfb9056e1fb4
2.390 2582.295389343 (35.532960369437966) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225909 0xce1699beca6f5dcf8e550839d3298e5f00db3292115fc2cc2ec936f63ecba808
2.403 2038.878044690 (-23.51858688751907) 0x0000F7F39325076881E5fC566E99595542532aE2/15906 225638 0x346b3c450b4078002c232387b0fa99b000dac305b8a305e2ca651e4bd3c9b5d6
2.405 2037.745671729 (-0.0555544509265968) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 240479 0x6c6b54021cf87d57a24847207aad964a56050445f9a60b29bcdbdb91e4996c9b
2.549 2875.301495579 (34.09516722832201) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0x523c8e4cecc6cc1e58a1fa7e837bc0f114a8be63c850643bbcfa093f932a3f97
2.552 2585.777879161 (-10.603164559635578) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225730 0x7369ec319d1e5d113a5e0309e669cb77100f06b21baa92a13a901e281f487829
2.554 2267.809703458 (-13.102397774448898) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0x4b4e27dae50e3fa875351f2612e737d967a04060f3b9ecfdc6f93c7a96cd2696
2.766 2267.809703457 (-4.409541058385107e-11) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0xe97febd0e8227246aa2adf7f19a30ce317eb7ef6bfb126424a5d66bbfe58c569
2.865 3237.589484021 (35.230134910825676) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0x762fb60b4458f968f022fd30652197537096ba9a66a67fe876b2acf2dccfceb9
3.179 2553.553726092 (-23.623513807583866) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0x04bddbbff0598ded8461d4845f15ad5149b3279a6fea05f9fcf3ab79c6c90b32 6698753 6698753 / 30
3.232 3302.364185558 (25.574486212529933) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225730 0x1f806e7bd7c12d973d204e648d4babf42d8aa9a3742f5badb6069afa1202084d
3.238 2553.553726093 (-25.574486212491408) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0x34da214a0aa47d2c95ed4151e68bcb35dfdf52505a79e80092cc6ddd26188961
3.239 2304.136078304 (-10.26898208128631) 0x0000F7F39325076881E5fC566E99595542532aE2/15906 225638 0x94f174a6c9875f22ce58257b030c0b857b321040e69a39965651817539171f7b
3.277 2024.685002823 (-12.911186221087496) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225730 0xb974104c19702b468c3b718e8bb85fad4902fad0d79d28bde63923490ce39417
3.457 934.420841127 (-73.68875729302383) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0xc1b787dfee2e598fe045e4de0d2a543b381fc8906b96d0b97c8b8651dcbd9bc7
3.470 2931.996109035 (103.32953189770716) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225440 0xb5c023be94c0c86ca0d809e8cf004cedb359ebf97150b9689a2558398643d61e
3.590 1585.344740434 (-59.62141947997105) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0xb57665253e158e6d1cdb1cc8d5d0c6a7e9dda826f2325119f2882715e419c115
3.709 2918.252019496 (59.19301172437639) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225909 0xa12ce7e671fe1e9c5ba2f7b5e98af793faa446d926fce42fe5846dc00565fb81
3.726 2602.457999128 (-11.440340800464993) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 240479 0x6d515c88b2bcdd1d7e4777fb78361ebc091d6a20018c494a967614b71a34fb3f
3.742 549.659318309 (-130.24887553919723) 0xccD7BDff63017081B5cF72993d5D84cf2a266330/708 234116 0x591d55c1a24c522ef251fa4d7e63684bc8d0d0f735d03c95741f35ccf2617bf6
3.743 243.581068349 (-77.17162542606734) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0xe6bf774373e925dd1a7e1ce809f69c5bf64f43307734a71efe9abbdd649cd168
3.759 2014.040589217 (156.8428895014037) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0xabdd845d87c25097d277dac8a1db386d440eeff8f42dd7a279779a683ef99ab0
3.787 3297.916607232 (48.3390950090208) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225909 0xf1c7c9a2c5ee4009bf7e3575bc979ffc0e62d39c5637e85b1e0be691374c2500
3.795 2941.037784814 (-11.440340800470745) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 240479 0x8ace86d125b792360c8415b7e7dbffe1959a4745695c3e4427b2c8870bc6ad44
3.808 620.154225200 (-130.3430735039123) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0x679b5eee4afa9705c984f1821f8bd248d90bf6c44cdf315efbe06bd3617d1413
3.813 364.068466127 (-52.038174150959) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0x0749c4b196d0a869509a7df710a0ae350892c83805735ecf09748462e32a4123
3.832 3323.666800618 (160.51034688850135) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 240479 0xdfc66581239ae706ad081502dfcaf78405c55806e3c7301d561ad6879b67529f
3.846 550.758636945 (-143.13906453273492) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0x4235b4ce5b10e575b3654d3324fe430c10b5ed43cb5feda13b1d52a318252615
4.011 262.184951012 (-70.99476278746758) 0xa2032B9317B53647fB0B4e60FD264eFe32179502/5 320307 0x53158a26d8be9a8d58903e46b75212f793d2957e9eeb992c0cde06ea841d3e5b
4.160 618.916392415 (80.97398649184004) 0xccD7BDff63017081B5cF72993d5D84cf2a266330/708 234116 0x49a52543a3cb4b9416575e23ad811ce997b13a45c8edf61a39d078efdcc08073
4.234 2288.096521690 (114.83816402576257) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225730 0x503b056997ec9a498742217946265bc4acce3400e2fcb3c3cf0ec7e8c1bb8015
4.311 934.420841126 (-84.01355388702012) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 249227 0xeb239122fa84e354960a7eff8e6f0b418ebab87a443bf246c67f5762e2c1c68e
4.472 1052.157867108 (11.853245531526326) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0x80f1cd02018b90d7ec0bf89b289252ca36c98fd2a430854392231bb65417216b
4.577 364.068466128 (-97.17223650371663) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0x09fcc81fe476c4ff047ec8f909579b24b726a1589db19331918709f5830aa9af
4.645 549.659318310 (40.62278839340538) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0x3f2127c1db4d4806d219df30f604bf54a93264cf24c6867fbac10b7e1a4bf83e
4.689 1788.668374083 (105.97394538017224) 0x44c2e195AB76797Bf16f417D13f914e1dcA94FfD/309 280000 0xb2bea21ed9e1907967694dc10874b1ee7589bdbc89a419266ec1a14fdc816dc2
5.131 3645.525759007 (68.33975156011405) 0x7E77777772d74Cba60638F3C19C60A3387172a06/4241 27000 0x0a8b89ded1ed24d96369b11b53c19336c2fd700f095d161fc53efbb761cf0930
6.072 218.487459176 (-177.38232797467077) 0xa2032B9317B53647fB0B4e60FD264eFe32179502/5 320356 0x4f3fa33a51e273f14895e3a4c1492bdf1215fb3ec349a2d1d13f4c4bb8be8cde
6.213 5.720000000 (-189.79516556492464) 0x9096410692868EA33F77Ff1Ca3Ae3d9948FAf82C/10747 200000 0xaa2bb8c01383abce3647569ff919721de6a1105c1736232d80438c046c1b30c4
8.069 1596.458007062 (198.5719439476044) 0x0000F7F39325076881E5fC566E99595542532aE2/15906 225638 0xd007081672133f490b3c62293ec7cff324fa63bdc1bfea39adf81bc362b2a610
8.180 1804.157193780 (12.21538894883333) 0x0000F7F39325076881E5fC566E99595542532aE2/15906 225638 0x781d4275d54e047148fe7968461c896726400c44d88ab8145cc6ec4082527d56
8.245 3313.448802820 (58.984283277873786) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225440 0xd26e02c56c647394ec5f4cc0537d07bbfcd76d892760310a66774e70c18d6531
8.565 190.229537903 (-178.2823056909105) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225440 0xf013d68dc695333e80d36411e9da7d17f1df2d6892de0d220c5a8cc0b6ef7237
9.008 934.597719716 (132.35244376788233) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225440 0xb753e585e929eed8a27db85cb0777a9a305d9b60de76bd8dde15486a8f94d68c
9.020 1588.816123517 (51.85185185184012) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225440 0x08ebc3869ad26509b09698b639e47ad16f0536b27c5bfa8c136cc4373165aa47
9.188 1797.611715952 (12.331317974738813) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225440 0x042a16a2c6e5102baecbbfe0b989133b24dd2aa5276dd802a8f1890914934e7d
9.200 2594.457224171 (36.28565576189177) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225440 0x6d198791ad9fcce46e16cf95adf07def3f3e13b226fbf4b3ccfa03ab7bb7c940
9.498 2922.187581239 (11.881510179760173) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225730 0xb166eb5c9fce04971fd0ff675bb1f407469e9f8a18c5585768b034a795864c99
10.370 549.763364539 (-136.6623119825435) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225440 0x132f3cdd8e56dd054fd46d33cd0dbb17b16ea6b383283c61a88f35d5933d599c
10.679 323.390214435 (-51.851851851767016) 0xAa24325B9d108492fB5D8b8583e1705986d70E04/5047 225440 0x39f77cb065a4f8a82d3cd7c7164d29cfd2920a21d7c8ff2ee92a487d3c0300fe
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This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1650441.
We would also like to thank NSF CNS-1330599, CNS-1514163, CNS-1564102, and CNS-1704615, ARL W911NF-16-1-0145, and IC3 Industry Partners.
Any opinion, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.